Professor Dr. Helmut Kuhn
Miinchen 22
Schellingstr. 10

Dear Mr. Kuhn:

Forgive me for writing to you in English but my hand-writing is hard to read and the
lady who is taking down my dictation does not have an easy command of German.
You have obliged me very much by sending me your review article on my book. I had
heard of the existence of that article and had tried to get hold of it through my
German publisher and a Heidelberg book store but my efforts have been of no avail.
As regards the contents of the review, I have been very much gratified by it. It is
the best review of my book which has appeared. It is far more than generous and
above all based on profound understanding of the issue with which I am concerned. I
myself regard the book as a preparation to an adequate philosophic discussion rather
than as a treatise settling the question (cf. the end of the Introduction and of
Chapter 1). Such a preparation is necessary because the very notion of natural right
has become completely obscured in the course of the last century. Scholars lacking
historical knowledge simply believe the histories of natural right and as far as I
can see no historian after Fr. J. Stahl has approached the subject philosophically.
(Stahl’s history of the philosophy of law ought to be reprinted. I tried to persuade
my German publisher to do such a reprinting but I failed. Perhaps you have an
opportunity to talk to another publisher on this subject). Since natural right is
today at best remembered rather than a living doctrine and since the fundamental
ambiguity regarding natural right is the one caused by the essential difference
between pre-modern and modern natural right, I had to write a precis raisonne of the
history of natural right. I agree then with your judgment that the value of my book
consists rather in its historical than in its philosophic aspect especially since
your judgment implies that the historical observations which I made are not
philosophically irrelevant.

At this point, however, a serious disagreement between us begins. You say that
historicism ought to have been treated by me in the style of the classic
disputation, i.e., as a timeless possibility of error which only accidentally
emerged in our age. You admit that to some extent I did this in the first two
chapters, but you say that the bulk of the book is devoted to the causal genesis of
the error rather than to its frontal criticism. But “it is necessary to state not
only the truth but also the cause of the error” (E. N. 1154 a 22-26) and the cause
of the error may well lie in accidents (“historical” accidents – cf. Politics 1341 a
28-32). In other words, not all errors have the same status: there are primary and,
as it were, natural errors but there are also derivative and “founded” (fundierte)
errors. I have indicated this in my chapter on Hobbes. One may say that the idea of
philosophy implies directly the possibilities of dogmatism on the one hand and of
skepticism on the other. The Cartesian -Hobbesian notion of a dogmatism based on
skeptism is derivative from the co-existence of dogmatism and skepticism. “Dogmatism
based on skepticism” is not a preserve of Descartes and Hobbes (Locke, Hume, and
Positivism); we must also not forget Kant’s thing-in-itself surrounding, as it were,
the dogmatic sciences of the phenomenal world nor Hegel’s understanding of
philosophy as “sich vollbringenden Skepticismus.” To return to historicism, it
appears to me to be an attempt to correct “dogmaticism based on skepticism” with its
peculiar “abstractions” or remoteness from the primary issues (which are met
properly only on the level at which both dogmaticism and skepticism live), and hence
to be derivative in the second degree. The genetic account seems therefore to be
particularly appropriate.

If I understand you correctly, you suspect that while my method as distinguished
from my concern is historical, my method endangers my concern and that in opposing
historicism I get entangled in a negative historicism of my own. I do not think that
you are right. In regarding Socratics, Plato and Aristotle as the classics of
natural right I do not assert, like a historicist, that there is of necessity and
essentially an absolute moment in history. I merely say that it is so happened that
the clearest exposition of the issue was given by that practically contemporary
triad – it could have happened elsewhere or at other times, perhaps it did and we
merely do not happen to know it. Or if the triad had not achieved what it did
achieve the same discovery might have been achieved by men who now are known only as
pupils or successors of the triad. “History” is not in my opinion, as you say it is,
essentially “history of decay” but if classical natural right is superior to modern
natural right (as you seem to admit), then a decay did take place in fact. At the
end of your article you refer to Aristotle’s “negative -periodistic concept of time”
which, you say, is incompatible with my own “productive-historical interest.” You
say that Aristotle’s concept of time demands “a kosmos without history.” I would say
that Aristotle’s concept of time demands an eternal or sempitemal order as the
ground of all change and in a way manifesting itself in all change. Aristotle
excludes indeed the essential necessity of the reasonable character of all change of
human thoughts and institutions; such change is necessary but there is no necessity
of its being reasonable or “meaningful.” Investigations of human thoughts and
institutions, and of their sequence, i.e., historical studies, have for Aristotle,
too, a certain value as he has shown abundantly “by deed”, but of course always a
strictly subordinate one, since what ultimately alone matters is the
transhistorical “Wesen der Dinge.”

You say that I accept the Aristotelian concept of time according to which time is
rather the cause of decay and that I apply this concept to Aristotle’s own
philosophy: Aristotle’s own philosophy is for me the permanent which has been
whittled down by historical change. I am not an Aristotelian since I am not
satisfied that the visible universe is eternal, to say nothing of other perhaps more
important reasons. I can only say that what Aristotle and Plato say about man and
the affairs of men makes infinitely more sense to me than what the moderns have said
or say. In passing I note that your rendering of Aristotle’s understanding of time
is decisively incomplete. Strictly speaking time is not the cause of decay rather
than of the opposite (Physics 222 b 25-26); time can be said to be with equal
justice to be the discoverer or a good helper of knowledge (EN. 1098 a 22-26).
I turn now to our disagreement regarding the history of natural right. You say “as
is well known, the terminology of the doctrine of natural right was created only by
stoicism”: Plato does not speak at all of natural right and Aristotle only
parenthetically (295). I begin my discussion with the remark that I spoke in the
very title of my book of natural right and not of natural law. Natural right (jus or
justum naturale, physikon dikaion or to physei dikaion), is I contend, an important
and even central theme of both Plato and Aristotle. As for Plato, I refer to the
Republic 501 b 2 (and context). This passage must be read in conjunction with such
passages as Republic 484 c 8-d 3 and 597 b-d. It thus becomes clear that for
Plato “natural right” strictly understood, that which is right by itself and not in
particular through man’s making it right, is the same as “the idea of justice.”
Besides, the whole order of the best polity is emphatically “according to nature,”
whereas the “present” arrangements are apparently “against nature.” (45
6 c 1-2). The
very justice of the polity of the Republic depends upon its being “according to
nature.” The legislator in the Laws follows “the natural order” of the various good
things (631 d 1-2). The domination of prudence or law is “according to nature.” (690
c 1-3). Cf. also Laws 765 e for a clear statement of the relation between “nature”
and “end.” The whole Platonic doctrine of the order of the soul and of the order of
the virtues is the doctrine of natural right if it is true that `justice” does not
necessarily mean one of the many virtues but the all comprehensive virtue. Cf.
furthermore Laws 757 c 3-d 5, regarding the relation of distributive justice
to “nature.” To summarize, Plato’s best polity is the order of human things dictated
by natural right.

But the core of our disagreement is the interpretation of Aristotle’s doctrine of
natural right. I try to follow your criticism point by point. You say that I render
Thomas’ interpretation in an imprecise and even misleading way. I would be grateful
to you if you substantiated this charge. I say that Thomas disagrees at any rate
with the wording of Aristotle since Aristotle says that “with us everything is
changeable” and hence in particular right, without making a distinction between the
changeable natural right and the unchangeable natural right, whereas Thomas makes a
distinction: the reasons of changeable things, and hence in particular of natural
right, are unchangeable; “the first principles of natural law” are unchangeable,
whereas already “the conclusions near to the first principles” are changeable. (Cf.
The Commentary on the Ethics, N. 1029 and S. th. 1-2 2. 94 a.5.c.) The Thomistic
example adduced here by you – theft is always unjust – is not sufficient according
to Thomas himself; S. th. 2 2q. 66a.5., shows that if a man is in very great need he
may take away stealthily from others what is indispensable to him in this situation.
With a view to this fact and similar ones of the same character, I agree somehow
with your statement that my interpretation of the Aristotelian passage differs from
the Thomistic interpretation only by a nuance. I do not believe, however, that this
renders invalid, as you say it does, my criticism of the Thomistic interpretation;
there are sometimes subtle nuances which are of crucial importance. I insisted on
the fact that Thomas’ doctrine of natural law differs radically from any
Aristotelian equivalent because there is no synderesis, no habitus of practical
principles, in Aristotle. And, considering the connection between synderesis and
conscience this means that Aristotle implicitly denies the conscience. You are
mistaken if you think that a single passage in the De Veritate has induced me to
make this point. What guided me was a broad reflection on the status of moral
principles in Aristotle’s teaching as a whole compared with the status of moral
principles in Thomas’ teaching as a whole.

Yet I return for the time being to your discussion of the crucial Aristotelian
passage. You admit that E.N. 1134 b 22 by itself clearly states that both natural
and conventional right are “equally or similarly changeable.” But you say that this
statement is wholly incomprehensible and that a very minor and perfectly plausible
emen dation suggested by Joachim disposes of the difficulty: the unintelligible
sentence is to be read as a question. I did not know Joachim’s emendation but I knew
that Moerbeke read the text as you suggest that it should be read, and that Thomas
understood the sentence in question as a dubitatio. But I contend that this by
itself does not dispose of the difficulty in any way. For what does your solution
amount to? Natural right has the same unchangeability and the same changeability as,
say, the human hand: “by nature the right hand is stronger yet allmen can become
ambidextrous.” Does this mean that by nature theft is unjust, but in extreme
situations theft may become just? Or, generally stated, that there are rules of
natural right which under certain conditions can be justly modified? This would mean
that there is not a single rule of natural right which is unchangeable and
universally valid. At any rate, Aristotle’s example of the natural right-handedness
of man does not justify the Thomistic distinction between immutable principles of
natural right and mutable conclusions.

In the immediate sequel Aristotle speaks of the specific changeability of
conventional right; he shows that this changeability is a function of the
changeability or variety of politics; and yet, “there is only one polity which is
everywhere in accordance with nature the best.” You take for granted that the
unchangeability of the best polity proves the unchangeability of natural right.1
Aristotle certainly does not say that the polity which is everywhere in accordance
with nature is everywhere and always just; he says that it is everywhere and always
the best. For, as he makes clear in his Politics, the one best polity is not
possible everywhere and therefore it cannot be just everywhere: while kingship is
the best and the most divine polity it would be most unjust to establish it among a
populace which does not possess a natural fitness for it. (E.N. 1160 a
35ff.,Politica 1289 b 40 and 1296 b 24 ff.)

You detract from the significance of the passage under consideration by stating that
the division of right into natural and conventional right concerns only political
right as distinguished from “right simply.” You have in mind, I take it, EN. 1134 a
24-26. But I do not see how “right simply” can mean anything else except “political
right.” (This is incidentally also the opinion of Thomas – Commentary on EN. n.
1003.) “Supremely right” is used in the Politics in contradistinction to the two
typical errors regarding right, namely, democratic right and oligarchic right (cf.
1280 a 22 and context). “Political right” is “right simply” because the relation of
right between different men requires a mutual independence of the men who stand in a
relation of right; to the extent to which a human being “belongs” to another human
being he lacks that independence. Furthermore, political right is right simply
because it is directed not merely to subordinate goods like the exchange of goods
and services but towards the common pursuit of autarchy, i.e., of virtue: it is the
fullest form of right (cf. Politics 1280 b 1-2 and 1337 a 22-27). The relation of
right between a citizen and a stranger is of necessity less full or rich. By this I
do not mean that it is beyond the distinction between right and wrong but it is
inferior, qua relation of right, to that among fellow citizens (cf. Apology of
Socrates 30 a 3-4; also Cicero, Offices 157, 50-51 and 53). While Aristotle makes
the distinction between the natural and the conventional only in the case
of “political right”, i.e., of the right obtaining among male full fellow citizens
he does not deny that there is natural right in regard to foreigners and in
particular to foreign cities. After all, he himself does not speak of conventional
right but of legal right, and different cities are not subject to the same laws
strictly speaking: a city must be “autonomous.” That he admits natural right as
regards foreigners, appears most clearly from his teaching on slavery: it is unjust,
i.e., unjust by nature, to enslave men who are not by nature meant for slavery. You
admit this of course. But from this it follows that if even the highest and fullest
natural right is changeable, the less dense form of natural right (that obtaining
between different individual cities, e.g.) is also changeable. Besides, in
considering natural right and its changeability I consider not merely the relation
to foreign enemies but the relation to domestic enem
ies as well; and not only the
relation to enemies … I emphasize the relation to foreign enemies only because
this is the most obvious and common case in which noble statesmen are not blamed for
actions which under normal conditions would be unjust.

You seem to think that for Aristotle natural right resides chiefly in equity, in the
fair interpretation of the written law of the particular political community. I am
not so sure of this although I know that I have the authority of Thomas against me.
However this may be, there can be no doubt that Aristotle developed the principles
of natural right in his teaching regarding commutative and distributive justice,
which so far from being dependent on legislative enactment, are the criteria of good
legislation. Notions like the just price, fair wages and the condemnation of usury,
are the most common examples. One could say that the part of commutative justice
which deals with the exchange of goods is in itself sub-political (cf. Politics 1280
b 1-12 with the existence of this kind of right in the city of pigs of the
Republic). But at any rate the great theme of natural political justice is the other
part of commutative justice, punitive justice (hence the distinction between guilty
and innocent transgressions as well as the concern for proper proportion between the
various kinds of crime and the various kinds of punishment, etc.), and, above all
distributive justice, the principles of which are the fundamental rules regarding
the assignment of public honor and authority to those worthy of it.

You contend that natural right proper in the full sense is characterized by the
assumption that there is a universal society comprising all men which is held
together by a universal, rational law binding man as man, and that this notion was
fully developed first by the Stoics. I am familiar with this view and I have given
it some thought, just as I have considered the passages of the Rhetoric and the
Ethics to which you refer in this context (pages 300-301). As for the passage in
Plato to which you refer, it occurs not in the Gorgias but in the Protagoras, and it
is ascribed not to Prodicus but to Hippias, the great fool. In addition, Hippias
does not say that all men are by nature friends and fellow citizens but those
engaged in the conversation and their likes, i.e., the wise. However this may be
Plato did not believe in the possibility of a universal society as an actual society
as appears from the myth of the Statesman and the noble he in the Republic. (414 d-
e: the substitution of “country” for “earth”). Plato tacitly rejected the universal
society as a solution of the political problem. But can one say that the Stoics
regarded the universal society as a political society? The difference here concerns
really the status of divine providence and hence the question whether the
universally valid “precepts” can be understood as laws proper. Whether the Stoics
differed in this respect from Plato, cannot be decided on the basis of Cicero’s Laws
I and Republic III because it is necessary to distinguish between the strict and the
popular teaching of the Stoa. At any rate, as you admit, Plato and Aristotle granted
that there are obligations of every human being to every human being as such. They
did not think however that these minimum obligations can be the root of all
obligations: the end cannot be deduced from the beginning.

You seem to argue as follows: since Aristotle recognized the justice of slavery,
e.g., he is very far indeed from the spirit of natural right thinking. I reply that
Aristotle’s admission of the justice of slavery – of a certain kind of slavery-
proves that he was a natural right teacher, for according to him it is by nature
right to enslave and to treat as slaves a certain kind of men. You do not hesitate
to regard Cicero and Thomas as natural right teachers and they too did not reject
slavery as simply unjust. It is equally a matter of course that no philosopher ever
regarded the social distinctions (kings, nobles, free men, slaves, exiles,
strangers) as ultimately important; the social hierarchy is respectable only to the
extent to which it is in tolerable harmony with the natural hierarchy. Whether there
is or is not such a natural hierarchy, is controversial between egalitarian and non-
egalitarian natural right. This issue is not even touched by remarks expressing a
contempt for the merely social hierarchy. The natural hierarchy is clearly
recognized through the distinction between the wise and the vulgar which plays such
a great role in the Stoic teaching. The real question is whether the Stoics differed
from Plato and Aristotle by asserting that every human being, including men of
outstanding stupidity, can become wise. Hitherto I have not seen a clear proof that
they made that assertion.

In conclusion I apologize for having bothered you with this long letter.

Sincerely yours,

Leo Strauss
1. It is significant, I think, that Aristotle speaks of the best polity in the
discussion of conventional right rather than of natural right.



This entry was published on 2007/08/22 at 08:00. It’s filed under 岛主抄书 and tagged , . Bookmark the permalink. Follow any comments here with the RSS feed for this post.

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